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股市资金再入楼市 高端物业成交价量齐升

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 光明网:抢着送老师手机 和争抢学区房同理 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

国务院已发声 未来3年大量油漆企业必须搬迁

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

“Thutmose III was one of the most important pharaohs in Egypt’s New Kingdom and is credited with establishing the Egyptian imperial province in Canaan,” said Gabriel Barkay, the co-founder and director of the Temple Mount Sifting Project.
adv. 未料到地,意外地
中国中央和地方政府会对技术升级方面投入更多的经费。 包括现代化农业、运输、医疗等方面。这些积极的投资将会进一步提高中国生产和制造业的竞争能力。这将是一次国家行为,目的是为了推动提高产品质量和产品合格率以及以提升产品主导的全球竞争力。
20. 对电影爱好者的最佳建议。8月学者韦勒·温斯顿·迪克森(Wheeler Winston Dixon)发出了警告:“如果你上亚马逊,看到什么精彩的黑白电影卖三美元,或者其他什么外国电影和鲜为人知的电影,赶快买下来,因为它就要绝版了,他们不会再出版它们了。”成千上万这种VHS格式的电影不会被做成DVD格式或蓝光格式,迪克森警告说。而下载的美丽新世界(又名电子销售)明年将是好年头。
revis修正+ion→修正,校订本
We will promote workmanship and foster a culture of workmanship where workers have a strong ethic and tirelessly seek improvement. We will see great numbers of Chinese workers exemplify workmanship and more Chinese brands enjoy international recognition. We will usher in an era of quality for economic development in China.
在《渴望生活》这张专辑的第一首歌《爱》中,拉娜·德雷唱着“过去的一切造就了今天的你,但未来由你决定”。

Americans: While you're here, why not pretend to be Canadian? Very few Britons can tell the difference, and it will allow you to rescue yourself from awkward conversations about the death penalty.
stick
Since the establishment of Avic 1 and Avic 2 in 1999, which really marked the beginning of China’s push into the commercial aerospace market, there has been no doubt about China’s intent and the direction it wants its industry to take. But the pace at which it would achieve this ambition was less uncertain. Almost 20 years on, things have become much more clear, and there is now little doubt that China is well on its way to succeeding where several other countries have failed in becoming a full-fledged player in the large commercial aircraft manufacturing sector, with the potential to disrupt the long-standing duopoly of Airbus and Boeing.
……被要求向面试官简单介绍自己,结果她没有什么可说的。
延长的生育假如何落实往往由地方政府决定。国家层面应该颁布执行细则以及具备法律约束力的相关措施,以确保该政策的贯彻实施和合理执行,从而保证女性不因劳动成本最小化而受到雇主的歧视。

Footnotes

  • 二手房抛售仍在持续 不动产登记真的来了
  • adj. 被识别的;经鉴定的;被认同者 v. 鉴定(id

Tumor Biology, a journal published by Springer Nature, announced last week that it had retracted the papers after an investigation showed the peer review process had been compromised.
在小说中,格洛搬来与邦德在伦敦同居,并在争吵中一起度过早晨时光。
“我们正努力留住并吸引更多的年轻专业人士和创业者,我们感谢每一个在我们国家工作和投资的年轻人。”
全球肥胖率上升的前因后果。
Sam Smith, 'The Thrill of It All'
卓越雇主排名:7

家居企业上市并非做强唯一出路 谋出路需更多思考

References

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